Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Skepticism and the Philosophy of Language in Early Modern Thought ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the importance of skeptical arguments for the philosophy of language in early modern thought. It contrasts the rationalist conception of language and knowledge with that of philosophers who adopt some sort of skeptical position, maintaining that these philosophers end up by giving language a greater importance than rationalists. The criticism of the rationalists' appeal to natural light is examined, as well as skeptical arguments limiting knowledge such as the so-called 'maker's knowledge' argument. This argument is then seen as capital for favoring a positive interpretation of the importance of language for knowledge. The revival of ancient skepticism in early XVIth century has been considered one of the major forces in the development of modern thought, especially as regards the discussion about the nature of knowledge and the sciences. Richard Popkin in his History of Skepticism from Erasmus to Spinoza (1979) has shown that skeptical arguments were influential in the attack against traditional scholastic conceptions of science, opening the way to the development of the new scientific method. The dispute between those who embraced skepticism and those who tried to refute or surpass it was central to the philosophical scene well into the XVIIIth century. However, the importance of the discussion of the nature and role of language in this process and its relation to skeptical arguments has scarcely been examined. My objective in this paper is to extend Popkin's analysis of the role of skepticism in the formation of modern thought to the consideration, in general lines, of some of the main features of early modern theories a... ...ld,A. et Nicole, P (1981). Logique, ou l'Art de Penser, Paris, Vrin. Descartes,R., (1996) RÃ ¨gles pour la direction de l'esprit, Principes de la Philosophie, in Ouevres, Paris,Vrin,. Kant,I. (1952) Critique of pure reason, Great Books of the Western World, Chicago, Encyclopedia Britannica. Jolley,N. (1988) The light of the soul, Oxford, Clarendon Press. Lennon, T. (1993) The battle of gods and giants, Princeton Univ.Press. Montaigne,M. (1952) Essais, Great Books of the Western World, Chicago, Encyclopedia Britannica. Perez-Ramos,A. (1988) Francis Bacon's idea of science and the maker's knowledge tradition, Oxford Univ.Press. Popkin,R. (1979) The history of scepticism from Erasmus to Spinoza, Berkeley & Los Angeles, Univ.of California Press. Zagorin, Perez (1984) "Vico's Theory of Knowledge: A Critique," Philosophical Quarterly, vol.34, no.134.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Thuan Nguyen Dr. Robert Janusko English II 2/17/13 A Rose for Emily & The Lottery Many short stories use a technique where they conceal the ending of the story while preparing the reader for the ending. In order to do that, the author uses methods of point of view and foreshadowing. In Ã¢â¬Å"A rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ written by William Faulkner and Ã¢â¬Å"The Lottery Ã¢â¬Å"written by Shirley Jackson, the authors use both methods. The point of view used by William Faulkner in Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ is in 1st person narration where the narrator is the observer of the protagonist.In Shirley JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ she uses 3rd person point of view in which the narrator is not involved in the story. Like most stories, Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ both use a literary device known as foreshadowing in which both of the authors give clues and hints throughout the story that lead the reader to upcoming happenings in the story and prep are the reader for the ending. In Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ , the narrator is the observer of Emily Grierson who is the protagonist of the story.Narration in 1st person point of view keeps the reader wondering what is going to happen next because it controls the perspective which allows for more surprises. The author also uses foreshadowing in which hints and clues are given throughout the story to prepare the reader for expectations in the story. An example used in the story is how Emily Grierson was in denial and refused to admit that her father is dead. The story also says how EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s father was really protective of her and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow Emily Grierson to date any men because no one was good enough for her.Another example given was that the person that Emily Grierson has been dating, Homer Barron was a Northerner and Emily Grierson knew that her family would not approve of her dating a northerner. Both of these examples gives the reader the hint that the reason E mily Grierson had killed Homer Barron was because she needed a male in the house with her to protect her which is why she did not give up her father for three days. Also, the fact that she loved Homer Barron but felt guilty that he was a northerner because her family would not approve of her dating a northerner.The author also concealed the ending when he threw the reader off by telling the reader that while Homer is out of town Emily bought a poison known as Arsenic. This caused the reader to expect that she was going to kill herself because Homer Barron left her even though he was only going out of town for a few days. Then the narrator went on to tell the reader how Emily bought menÃ¢â¬â¢s items and a toilet set with Homer BarronÃ¢â¬â¢s initial on it to distract the reader away from the poison. This distraction was the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s method of trying to conceal the ending while preparing the reader for the ending.The story also hint how there is a smell of decay in and aroun d her house which usually means a dead corpse. At the end of the story Emily Grierson dies and up in the locked up second floor was a skeleton which was Homer BarronÃ¢â¬â¢s body. Next to HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s Body was a pillow with an indentation of a head and a strain of EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s hair. It was obvious that Emily had killed Homer Barron because Arsenic, which Emily purchased earlier, has side effects of edema. In Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ , Shirley Jackson writes the story in a 3rd person point of view which allows the reader to understand the situation from all sides.Since the story was in 3rd person point of view not all of the villagers thoughts were not revealed, which the reader eventually learns from the villagersÃ¢â¬â¢ argument that this is not something the people of the village would want to win. If the story were in 1st point of view from Mr. HutchinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective then the narrator would have to explain how Mr. Hutchinson felt about the lottery, easily giving aw ay the ending that someone was going to get stoned. Third person point of view allows the narrator to give bits of information though the actions and discussions of the villagers and not give away the ending.An example of this is when the narrator said Ã¢â¬Å"Bobby Martin had already stuffed his pockets full of stonesÃ¢â¬ . The information given could most likely mean anything or just something meaningless. They could be playing a game with the rocks that he stuffed in his pockets. The story then reveals that the rocks were used to stone someone to death at the end. Some other clues and hints given in the stories was the saying by Old man Warner Ã¢â¬Å"Lottery in June, Corn be heavy soonÃ¢â¬ and the story also mentions a ritual. The saying Ã¢â¬Å"Lottery in June, Corn be heavy soonÃ¢â¬ is saying that population control is needed because Old an Warner also mentioned how there would be trouble if this tradition stopped due to lack of supplies. The term Ã¢â¬Å"RitualÃ¢â¬ usu ally could mean death. The story was then easily given away that someone was going to be stoned when Tessie Hutchinson argued against her own husband for winning the lottery. It wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t make sense to argue with your own spouse if they would win the lottery. Again, the story keeps you wondering what is going to happen next when they had to redraw the card and ends with Tessie Hutchinson being stoned to death.In conclusion, the authors used different points of views and also foreshadowing to conceal the ending while preparing the reader for the ending. Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ used 1st person point of view effectively and only allowed the reader to be the observer of Emily Grierson instead of being in her point of view which helped conceal the ending of the story. Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ used 3rd person point of view effectively and concealed the ending by not revealing the villagerÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
What is the No Child Left Behind Act? The article Ã¢â¬Å"Do states have the right to ignore federal laws that they do not want to follow,Ã¢â¬ have followers that disagree that states need more authority to avoid the federal government from commanding policies they go up against; the Tenth Amendment presents a constitutional foundation for affirming that power. Today, opponents dispute, that federal power has decreased to weak levels, threatening individual liberties and making state rights that much more vital as an necessary defense to federal misuse of power. Opponents, meanwhile, dispute that such an liberal understanding of states rights is not supported by a secure understanding of the Constitution, mainly, the supremacy clause of Article VI, which appoints the federal Constitution, laws, and treaties as the supreme law of the land, and the protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, which prevents states from depriving any United States civilian of basic rights. A strong federal government is essential to make sure that all states follow the same federal laws. Without well-built federal power to join the country together, they will compete against each other, and each state could follow totally diverse sets of laws, causing confusion. Texas must discover other methods to assist and find solutions to No Child Left Behind. Texas does not have the right to overlook federal government commands related to No Child Left Behind. Every child in Texas must perform at his or her ownShow MoreRelatedNo Child Left Behind Act1621 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The support for the No Child Left Behind Act plummeted down shortly after the act passed. Many people supported the act at first simply because they supported the goals of the act, once they saw the results, their opinions changed. One of the biggest arguments towards No Child Left Behind is that it is unfair. People believed the resources of difference schools were unequal, and thought the Title 1 funding that th e schools received should go to ensuring all schools had equal resources. Many peopleRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act1670 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Literature Review: Every Student Succeeds Act Suzanne Hatton, BSW, LSW University of Kentucky-SW 630 Abstract This literature review seeks to explore the Every Student Succeeds Act (2015), a bipartisan reauthorization and revision to the No Child Left Behind Act (2002). The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the first law passed in fourteen years to address Reneeded changes to the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Considered progressive and innovative at the time of itsRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act875 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe No Child Left Behind Act Ã¢â¬Å"NCLBÃ¢â¬ was a bill passed by the Senate in 2001 and signed into law by President George W. Bush on January 8, 2002. It was a revision of the Elementary and Secondary Act Ã¢â¬Å"ESEAÃ¢â¬ of 1965 by President Lyndon Johnson. The NCLB was intended to help children in lower-income families achieve the same standard of education as children in higher income families. This was done by the federal government providing extra finances for Title I schools in exchange for a rise in academicRead MoreNo Child Left Behind Act1418 Wor ds Ã |Ã 6 Pagessystematic oppression. The flowing water of oppression floods poor schools; drowning students with dreams, and giving no mercy. The only ones safe from the water are the privileged, who are oblivious to the fact that it exists. George Bush s No Child Left Behind Act, which passed in 2002, mandated annual standardized testing in math and reading. If schools received insufficient scores, they were punished or shut down. This fueled the construed concept that a school is only doing well if the students haveRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act Essay921 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesuccessful at it. (Source 7) Next, the Ã¢â¬Å"No Child left behind ActÃ¢â¬ it was signed by President George W. Bush and it passed with bipartisan support on Jan. 8, 2002. This Act states that there will be mandated annual testing in the subject reading and math and science. In the grades 3-8 and 10th grade. It shows the Adequate Yearly Progress of each school in the system of the United States. (source 1) The biggest point of this Act is that no child is Ã¢â¬Å"trapped in a failing schoolÃ¢â¬ (source 1). That eachRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act2120 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesWhen President George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) into law in 2002, the legislation had one goal-- to improve educational equity for all students in the United States by implementing standards for student achievement and school district and teacher performance. Before the No Child Left Behind Act, the program of study for most schools was developed and implemented by individual states and local communitiesÃ¢â¬ â¢ school boards. Proponents of the NCLB believed that lax oversightRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act1988 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesJanuary 8, 2002, George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act into law (also known as the NCLB). The No Child Left Behind Act was the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, a federal education bill addressing the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s schools. At his signing ceremony, Bush stated, Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s no greater challenge than to make sure that every childÃ¢â¬âand all of us on this stage mean every child, not just a few childrenÃ¢â¬âevery single child, regardless of where they live, how theyÃ¢â¬â¢reRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act1592 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe No Child Left Behind Act was the biggest educational step taken by president Bush and his administration. Its main goal included the increase of achievement in education and completely eliminate the gap between different racial and ethnic grou ps. Its strategies had a major focus on uplifting test scores in schools, hiring Ã¢â¬Å"highly qualified teachersÃ¢â¬ and deliver choices in education. Unluckily, the excessive demands of the law have not succeeded in achieving the goals that were set, and have causedRead MoreNo Child Left Behind Act1747 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesNo Child Left Behind Introduction The No Child Left Behind Act (NALB) was signed into law by the former President of the United States George Walker Bush on the 8th of January 2002. It was a congressional attempt to encourage student achievement through some reforms focused on elementary and secondary education programs in the United States. The NCLB requires that within a decade all students including those with disabilities to perform at a proficient level on their state academic evaluation testsRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act1124 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesChristian J. Green Dr. Shoulders NCLB and ESSA 28 February 2016 The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was authorized by and signed into law in 2002. NCLB was a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965. NCLB was meant to hold schools to higher standards, enforce accountability, and close achievement gaps that had existed in education since ESEA was enacted. Nevertheless, the rigorous standards and goals set forth under NCLB were never attained. ESEA Flexibility could
Saturday, December 28, 2019
In this paper, I plan to argue the ideas by Edward Conard, in his argument that we donÃ¢â¬â¢t need more humanities major in our academic system. In specific, this paper will explore the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s claims, the gaps in his arguments and counter-arguments in this topic. My argument is important because I will challenge ConardÃ¢â¬â¢s article with the self-fashioningÃ¢â¬â¢s article by Keohane. In ConardÃ¢â¬â¢s article, he demonstrates to answer the question whether or not we need more humanities. His answer is that we should be focus on technology and innovation to have a better living standards. (41) His main argument is that innovation and technology are the key to driver of the American economy and there is a need for more talents and expertise in this area.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(43) Schools give one the time and materials to achieve all what one desire in life. (43) In the same way, I would challenge the students to leverage their energy and time to become the best they can be in their life. (43) This paper also supports the self-fashioning article by Keohane. Self-fashioning builds the character, personality, and focus on the student. A self-fashioned student is more likely to succeed in life in whichever line of specialization he chooses. Likewise, I disagree with Conard on the point that innovation and technology are more likely to bring success to the student. From experience, people who know their personality and character are able to use in their skills, time and education to be the best in whichever field, whether in technology and innovation or humanities. In my view, success and failure are not a factor of chosen line of specialization rather, it is a factor of hard work and determination to create a change. Self-fashioning is more fundamental and basic education, like authority, and intelligence and it is determined by how people deal with small and basic things in life. Things like cleaning, washing, and taking care of oneself are more important that education whe n it comes to self-fashioning. In my life, the most common basic things derive from self-fashioning. They include taking care of oneself through right
Friday, December 20, 2019
I. Orwell, George. Burmese Days, Harcourt Inc, 1934. 287 pp. Patrick Morgan The World Since 1850 Greenstein Burmese Days Book Review September 27, 2010 II. George Orwell, born Eric Blair was born in Motihari, Bengal, a then British territory of India in 1903. He was very scholarly from a young age and earned scholarships to preparatory schools and both Wellington and Eton colleges. After furthering his education at Eton he joined the Indian Imperial Police Force in Burma. After 5 years he grew to hate the thought of British imperialism and resigned in 1928 to return to England. It is suggested by many that Burmese Days is loosely based on his service. Orwell was from a Ã¢â¬Å"lower-upper middle classÃ¢â¬ family, but chose toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Veraswami stop and Dr. VeraswamiÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation is reestablished. This leads to U Po KyinÃ¢â¬â¢s plan to sink Mr. Flory by paying Mr. FloryÃ¢â¬â¢s former mistress to make a scene and kill all dreams he had with Elizabeth after she had taken him back for the second time. Which ultimately causes Mr. FloryÃ¢â¬â¢s depression and suicide and Dr. Veraswami to lose his powe rful friend, chance of club membership, and his job. He is then demoted and sent to another area. Orwell gives most attention to the corruption that takes place due to the self-serving magistrate U Po Kyin. The most important feature of this book is the fact that though it is a novel it is based on events that occurred during this time, in this place. I was most amused by how the book links culture and social commentary to a romantic story. The story, for me, was tough to follow at first but once established I found the usage of side stories to clutch my interest. IV. George Orwell writes this book to bring forth his thoughts and knowledge gained from living in working during the span of British colonization in Burma. Orwell is resentful of that of British imperialistic control of Burmese wealth, and mistreatment of the native people. Orwell pronounces how British control in Burma has ruined the culture of the natives and caused the few natives that gain political power to become corrupted and turn against their own people for their own self-gratification. Orwell relates the corruption of power to theShow MoreRelatedBurmese Pythons in the Everglades1599 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesUnited States, a group of tourists set out for a day of exploration in the Everglades. They hoped to see some of the diverse and unique species that the Everglades are famous for, and maybe snap a few cool pictures to show their friends. They could never have anticipated what they would actually discover. A short way into their trek, the party was drawn to a noisy struggl e nearby. They followed their ears to a duel between an alligator and a huge Burmese Python. The alligator clamped his jaws aroundRead MoreImperialism In The 19Th Century Resulted In European Countries1726 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesproposed new points of view when analyzing imperialism, and have similar themes regarding oppression. AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s success in his novel can be measured through evaluating Things Fall ApartÃ¢â¬â¢s impact on western society throughout history from 1958 to modern day. In order to effectively analyze Things Fall Apart as a novel, understand Achebe as an author, and properly assess imperialismÃ¢â¬â¢s effect on the modern world, it is consequently important to recognize the historical facts behind imperialism. ImperialismRead MoreThe Is An Oil Company Of California2451 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesto international markets such as China and India and the Burmese government maintained a stable climate but on the other hand the region where the pipeline was being constructed was not safe to work as Burma had a military dictatorship which harassed and violated the rights of people, after analysing and knowing all these facts Unocal still invested in the project. During the construction of the pipeline there were reports that the Burmese Karen minority groups were forced to relocate and were torturedRead More Prospect of Democracy in Burma Essay2385 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages the international community and the people of Burma expected the process to evolve to the next stage Ã¢â¬â substantive political negotiations. However, the whole process has stalled. BurmaÃ¢â¬â¢s military remain in control. In justifying the hiatus, the Burmese military leaders engage in various forms of platitudinous rhetoric, carefully designed to obfuscate their totalitarian intent. The theme of this rhetoric is that the country is undergoing a transition toward a multi-party democracy. BurmaÃ¢â¬â¢s influentialRead MoreThe Military Forces in Myanmar2777 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesthemselves without outside help as when the Portuguese helped reunite Burma in 1531 . Trend continued well into the Anglo-Burmese war of 1824. Burma lost and as a result had to cede of its land to British India. By 1885, the entirety of Burma was a province of British India until 1937 when it became a crown colony of Britain . It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until Japan invaded Burma in the 1940s that the Burmese were able to successfully resist foreign rule. Even in its Colonial period there was a lack of widespread internalRead MoreGeorge Orwell s Books On His Thoughts And Feelings Toward The World868 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshe would begin t o see the detestable side to British Imperialism. Orwell knew he wanted to be a writer so after 5 years resigned from the force and went back to England in 1922. (George Orwell Biography) Soon he would publish his second big book Burmese Days in 1934 which Ã¢â¬Å"offered a dark look at British colonialism in Burma, then part of the country s Indian empireÃ¢â¬ (George Orwell Biography). By this time Orwell identified himself as a socialist. Two years later Orwell and his wife traveled to SpainRead More British Empire Essay2886 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagessettlements established by the English East India Company. INDIA: THE BRITISH ESTABLISH THE CITY OF CALCUTTA Although the story of the British involvement in India is dramatic and is studied in detail in the next chapter, it is still necessary to here review the major developments. By 1700, the English East India Company had set up three major trading posts in India, being careful at the time to engage in trade only and making no attempt to colonize or rule the locals. In fact, through co-operation withRead MoreMiley CyrusÃ ´ Career Essay1392 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesperformance occurred when she bent down in front of Robin, delivering a personal Ã¢â¬Å"twerkingÃ¢â¬ (HollywoodLife). Some may frown upon this inhibited display, but it is just an additive to MileyÃ¢â¬â¢s expressive movement. Not three days after MileyÃ¢â¬â¢s taboo production, millions of tweets and reviews had surfaced the internet, both positive and negative. One particular unfavorable critic, Kyle Anderson, stated in his co-authored scrutiny, Ã¢â¬Å"Now the only thing well remember about her VMAs moment is how she masturbatedRead MoreThe Themes and Motivations Behind George Orwells 19842682 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesconvalescent leave that Eric decided to spend the rest of his life as a writer. His time spent with the Imperial Police proved not only to help him mature, it also lent itself to two essays, Ã¢â¬Å"A HangingÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Shooting and ElephantÃ¢â¬ and the novel, Burmese Days that heÃ¢â¬â¢d pen later in life. (Orwell, n.d.) Once George was removed from service and back in England, he visited his old tutor Gow for advice on becoming a writer. The result of the visit was his decision to move to London; by the end ofRead More Economic Development Essay2071 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesEastern countries, which employ large numbers of Bangladeshi workers. Relations with India have improved considerably due to the pragmatic approach taken by the current government. More recently, an influx of Burmese Muslim refugees across the Southeastern border has created tensions with the Burmese authorities. The Economy Bangladesh is one of the most populous and poorest developing countries. The annual per capita income is about US$265. With its newfound political stability, Bangladesh has undertaken
Thursday, December 12, 2019
The individual communication is usually easier when you are talking about a specific issue pertaining to you, and its generally easier to ask questions and not feel bad or embarrassed by your questions. In a group communication its better to learn from others. Say you are in a group communication and you are all working on the same project, everyone feeds off the other, to come up with more improved ideas, and often you learn something you didnt know before. The only downfall with a group communication is that everyone talks, and sometimes its a bit hard to talk or put your idea out there, and some people find if difficult to talk in front of people. * - What conflict resolution strategies could be used in case of disagreement? The most important strategy plan would be establish the principles of discussion before engagement. When problems arise address them right away, do not wait till its too late to talk about. We will write a custom essay sample on Group Communication or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Its not often that everyone in the group is going to agree about the same thing, but let it be know what you do not agree with or what you do agree with right away. if you feel that the conversation needs to be held after the meeting let it be know right away that you need to talk after the meeting. There will always be several disagreements, and each one has to be dealt with differently, and we should always make sure there is a difference. Then we need to make sure the information is accurate. We will need to looking into the requirements of the disagreements, and try to find an alternative so that all involved can agree. The final and I think very important is to repair any negative feelings, you never want to leave a meeting with a person that is so upset, if you do this then that person will sit and stew on everything and bad things could come of it. * - What strategies can be used to foster group communication? Provide examples of how these strategies can be used. Each group interaction will be different, and the best practice is to have a very knowledgeable leader. For instance at work we all have a boss, and that person is our boss because he/she has proven themselves. We all learn by example and they are there to help us move up, as they once were in our uses. A great leader makes for a great group.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Business Accounting for Business Draft and Proposal. Answer: Examining the relevant exposure draft depicted in IASB website: IASB mainly have discussion, exposure draft and proposal on certain topics, which in turn helps in supporting the ethical business practices. The relevant exposure draft published in 2015 December is been effectively reviewed in the assignment. Applying IFRS 9 Financial instrument with IFRS 4 Insurance Contacts is the topic of the exposure draft (Ifrs.org 2016). In addition, the effective depiction of the overall issues portrayed in the exposure draft is evaluated. Identifying and summarising the overall issued raised in the exposure draft: The main concern depicted in the paper is regarding the impact of new insurance contract standards on IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts (Ifrs.org 2016). The IFRS 4 is mainly designed to address the concerns of relative parties regarding the effective dates of IRFS 9. In addition, with the help of relative IFRS 9 companies and relatively individuals are able to recognise and measure the financial instruments. Furthermore, IAS 39 is been effectively replaced with the IFRS 9 for recognising and measuring the financial instruments (Ifrs.org 2016). Bischof and Daske (2016) stated that the use of effective regulation of IFRS does not allow companies to use any unethical measures to decrease their tax pay. On the other hand, Ramirez (2015) criticises that changing rules in IFRS mainly depicts a loopholes, which help companies to take advantage and reduce their tax pay. In addition, the exposure draft also portrays the problems, which might be faced by insurers, while using the new IFRS 9 for recognising and measuring the financial instruments (Ifrs.org 2016). The insurers and relative party has mainly states that the two major accounting changes in such short notice could eventually change the cost. Moreover, this cost difference might affect the volatility of the profit and loss statement of the insurance companies. Furthermore, if the IFRS 9 is applied before new insurance contract standard then the companies might face problems in their overall financial statement. Onali and Ginesti (2014) mentioned that IFRS 9 is mainly helpful in valuing the financial instruments used by insurance companies, which could be adequately depicted in their financial statement. On the contrary, Novotny (2016) argued that due to the complexity of IFRS 4 and IAS 39, IFRS 9 could not be easily incorporated in the financial statement of the insurance companies. In addition, the insurance companies have further identified that the implementation of IFRS 9 could mismatch their overall accounting system, which might depict wrong financial statement to its stakeholders. In addition, the use of IFRS 9 could eventually hamper their overall financial statement (Ifrs.org 2016). Thus, for addressing the conversion of the insurance companies the IFRS has mainly included the option of voluntarily discloser. However, the temporary issues taken by the IFRS does not accommodate the negative impact IFRS 9 could have on the new insurance contract standards. Nadia and Rosa (2014) cited that insurance companies have been effectively developing the financial instruments based on IFRS 4 guidelines. In this context, Chawla et al. (2016) further elaborated that changing the financial instrument from IFRS 4 to IFRS 9 could mainly have negative impact on the operations and valuation of the companys assets. However, IASB after hearing and understating the problems of the insurance companies have effectively depicted the measures, which could be used until the IFRS 9 is fully implemented from 1st Jan 2018. Furthermore, IASB after the effective evaluation have depicted the entities that an option to reclassify their financial instruments will be effectively provided (Ifrs.org 2016). These additional benefits of reclassification and providing an option could help in reducing the volatility of IFRS 9 on the profit and loss statement of the entities. Furthermore, the option creation could effectively help the IASB reduce the overlap approach, which arises from the implementation of IFRS 9. Huian (2013) stated that amendments and revisions are mainly helpful in reducing the negative impact of law in the operations of the company. Nevertheless, Celli (2013) criticises that delay in implementing ethical laws might not help in reducing the unethical measures conducted by companies in depicting t he value of their intangible assets. In addition, the IASB has also depicted the second measure, which might be implemented to reduce the negative impact of IFRS 9. Moreover, IASB also stated the entities, which deal in financial instrument could temporarily opt out from IFRS 9. In addition, the entities who mainly issue contracts based on IFRS 4 could also be exempted from the temporary implementation of IFRS 9 until the matter is been effective resolved (Ifrs.org 2016). This exemption is mainly conducted to prevent the companies from facing loses, which are wholly dependent on the IFRS 4 for designing the financial contracts. In addition, insurance and financial product selling companies are most affected from the overall change depicted in IFRS 9. Ldenbach and Christian (2013) mentioned that IFRS 4 mainly provides the insurance companies relatively measures, which could be depicted in their financial statement. However, Bischof and Daske (2016) argued that due to the loopholes in IFRS 4 the IASB has mainly introduced IFRS 9, which might change the overall assumption of financial assets conducted by certain entities. The overall exposure draft mainly depicts the questions, which needs to be answered within the 60 days from its release. This system is mainly maintained by IASB for effectively detecting the relative changes, which might be needed in the IFRS 4 and IFRS 9 (Ifrs.org 2016). Furthermore, IASB mainly stated that the overall issues depicted in the exposure draft mainly relate to some entities and the scope of the impact can be limited. Furthermore, the depicted amendments are a temporary faces, which is just a measure that could only be used before the implementation of the IFRS 9. In this context, Onali and Ginesti (2014) mentioned that IASB with the help of due process handbook is able to collect relative comments from the entities ridging viability of the proposed law. However, Nadia and Rosa (2014) argued that IASB can be enforce the law if low impact is on the operations and financial statement of different entities. Critically evaluating the overall issues discussed in the exposure draft: The overall issues that is been depicted in the exposure draft mainly states the change in IFRS 4 regulations and insurance contract. Moreover, the main reason for drafting the IFRS 9 is to reduce the overall loopholes that are currently being present in IFRS 4 laws. IFRS 4 mainly allows the insurance and lending companies to depict the future predictions, which might be incurred from the current transactions (Huian 2013). This type of listing mainly reduces the overall viability of the financial statement. In addition, the IFRS system allows banks and financial institutions to depict the expected gains in their current profits and inflate their overall balance sheet. In addition, banks are able to effective use the CDS (Credit Default Swaps) to reduced the losses in their overall financial statement (Celli 2013). The financial crisis of 2008 was the major indication that the overall impact of IFRS is being reduced on the financial institutions. In addition, IFRS to reduce the unethical measures used by financial institutions effectively depicts the IFRS 9, which limits the overall financial institutions from utilising the identified loopholes. Furthermore, the IFRS 9 changes the current valuation of assets and liabilities that are being accounted in the financial statements (Ifrs.org 2016). In addition, it introduces logical approach, which might be used by companies to depict its adequate and ethical financial statement (Chawla et al. 2016). In addition, IFRS mainly changes the overall principle based requirements, which was been use to measure the financial asset and liabilities of banking companies. Reference: Bischof, J. and Daske, H., 2016. Interpreting the European Unions IFRS endorsement criteria: The case of IFRS 9.Accounting in Europe,13(2), pp.129-168. Celli, M., 2013. The Faithful Representation of Electrical Energy Sale and Purchase Agreements Under International Accounting Standards/International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS/IFRS).Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing,9(8), p.1032. Chawla, G., Forest, J., Lawrence, R. and Aguais, S.D., 2016. Point-in-time loss-given default rates and exposures at default models for IFRS 9/CECL and stress testing.Journal of Risk Management in Financial Institutions,9(3), pp.249-263. Huian, M., 2013. ANALYSIS OF THE CONSTITUENTSPARTICIPATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE 1ST PHASE OF IFRS 9 FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS.Annals-Economy Series,1, pp.209-216. Ifrs.org. (2016).IFRS - Home. [online] Available at: https://www.ifrs.org/Pages/default.aspx [Accessed 10 Oct. 2016]. Ldenbach, N. and Christian, D., 2013.IFRS Essentials: Regeln, Flle, Lsungen. Mehr als 50% Beispiele. Verstndlicher Sprachstil. Praxisrelevante Bilanzierungsfragen. Inklusive IFRS 9-13, IAS 1 (2011) und IAS 19 (2011). NWB Verlag. Nadia, C. and Rosa, V., 2014. The impact of IFRS 9 and IFRS 7 on liquidity in banks: Theoretical aspects.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,164, pp.91-97. Novotny-Farkas, Z., 2016. The interaction of the IFRS 9 expected loss approach with supervisory rules and implications for financial stability.Accounting in Europe,13(2), pp.197-227. Onali, E. and Ginesti, G., 2014. Pre-adoption market reaction to IFRS 9: A cross-country event-study.Journal of Accounting and Public Policy,33(6), pp.628-637. Ramirez, J., 2015.Accounting for Derivatives: Advanced Hedging Under IFRS 9. John Wiley Sons.